Ivan Pavlov (Russian physiologist notable for his “Pavlov’s dog” experiment), Mikhail Nesterov (1935).
Georgy Gause (1910-1986), Russian biologist behind the famed Paramecium experiment which demonstrated the principle of competitive exclusion- whereby two species with identical requirements for resources cannot coexist.
Lina Stern (1878-1968). Soviet biochemist and the first female professor of the University of Geneva; known for her pioneering work on the blood-brain barrier.
Valery Bykovsky, Valentina Tereshkova and Yuri Gagarin (June 1965). Gagarin was the first man in space, Tereshkova the first woman, and Bykovsky holds the record for longest solo space flight.
Andrei Sakharov (1921-1989), worked as a researcher on nuclear fusion before becoming an activist against nuclear proliferation in the 1960s. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975.
Sergei Korolev (1907-1966), pioneering Soviet rocket engineer. Managed the production of the first artificial satellite Sputnik 1, before going on to design the Vostok spacecraft which launched the first man into space in 1961.
Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945), Soviet geochemist. One of the first scientists to recognise the significance of living organisms in the formation of Earth’s modern atmosphere and founded The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), pioneer of astronautics. Derived the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation and made a significant contribution to the Soviet Space Program; in addition to his exploration of the earth sciences and biology.
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Russian Biologist (1845-1916). Awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1908 for his work on phagocytosis- the engulfing and digestion of particles by a cell.